Working to transform the child welfare system.

The number of children of incarcerated parents in the U.S. has increased dramatically, and the children and families appear to be at risk for multiple problems.  There have been some family-focused prevention efforts tried. This study examines factors that may be important to look at when developing preventive intervention programs. Participants were 359 inmates, mothers and fathers of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years, who had parented their children before being incarcerated. Observable differences, including employment history and income, substance use, mental health, trauma experiences and criminal history, were relevant to family and child outcomes. Implications for preventive intervention programs are explored.